Monday, December 6, 2010

The Evolution of Hotel Industry

The history of travel is a great landmark in the field of tourism industry. Travel is as old as mankind. From the time of immemorial, people started the traveling due to the various causes. It may be the purpose of the economic, social, cultural, spiritual achievement of the human being. Travel in the distant past, however, was not undertaken for the purpose of pleasure since the motive was not to seek any holiday from the work situation. The primary motive for which travel was undertaken related to trade, commerce and the activities associated with it. No travel formalities existed as there were no frontiers. The history of travel can be divided into mainly seven divisions. These can be:
1. Early Travel
2. Pleasure Travel
3. Travel in Middle
4. Travel in Renaissance
5. Emergency of spas and seaside Resorts.
6. The Industrial Revolution Period
7. Air transport system

The Early Travel:
Since the dawn of the civilization we have the evidence that, human beings were remaining busy for the search of food and shelter which is the basic feature of mankind. We have the historical evidence about the movement of people since the Neolithic Age that is 10,000 B.C. In the early phase of the travel we have following evidences of human being’s movement from place to place. In Neolithic age of 10,000 B.C. mankind started the settled life, agriculture, and so many activities for the betterment of comfortable life.
In Egypt sailing vessels were built in 4000 B.C. Sumerians knew the use of wheel & money around 3500 BC and used it in trade and commerce purpose. Shulgi of Babylonia constructed the rest houses for the travelers. Thus the trade and commerce relations were developed from East to West. Westerners imported the spices, silk etc. from the Easterners. Followings are some trade routes of that time
China – India – Arabia,
India – South-East Asia,
India–Tibet,
Silk Routes. Thus Trade first motivated to travel and travelers needed more and more comfort during their travel, like accommodation catering, health etc. As a result Pvt. Organizations were emerged and it resulted in the following developments.

1. Development of creative activities.
2. Service to travelers constituted the local economic growth.
3. Cultural and Commercial contact.
4. Exchange of ideas and thinking.


Pleasure Travel:
After the ending part of the early travel the Rome Empire reached the apex of the glory. Hence it is marked that the Roman people started the concept of the travel for pleasure. Because of
1. Good Road Communication.
2. Money and time.
Roman people were Best Patron of art, learning and literature etc. We have the example of the silk route from Mediterranean sea to Pacific Ocean consist of 12,000 Km. It was connected by the older prosperous cities like Rome, Greece, Egypt, Mesopotamia, Persia, India, China, like this. Some intellectuals of that period remained busy in creative activities due to their curiosity. They are as follows.
i. Homer’s odyssey records the prosperity of Greece.
ii. Herodotus visited Egypt, Phoenicia.
iii. Greek Philosophers like Thales, Pythagoras, Plato, Aristotle visited Egypt.
The pleasure travel period came to an end due to the fall of the Roman Empire in (400-500 A.D.)

Events of Traveling in Ancient India:
Pilgrim travel assumed a great importance in India. Ashoka traveled a great deal in his eagerness to spread doctrines of Buddha. Ashoka and his entourage first traveled to Nepal starting from Patliputra and then ventured to Lumbini Gardens, the land of Buddha’s birth, on the Kapilvastu, the place where Buddha spent his childhood. From here, he went to Sarnath, where Buddha spent many years of his life and finally to Gaya, where Buddha got enlightenment. Through his travels, Emperor Ashoka had special memorials set up at each spot and also rest houses where traveler could rest. Harsha was anoher emperor who built institutions and Dharamshalas for travelers. Resthouses, monasteries and temples were also built for pilgrims.

Travel In Middle Age:
In the middle age a new class of people emerged for travel. They used both land and sea routes of their local area. We have some important travelers of this age are
1. Benjamin of Tudela visited many places of Europe, Persia etc.
2. Young Marco Polo visited entire Europe and Asia.
3. Iban Batutah left Morocco, Crossed Africa, and West Asia and so on.
4. John of Monte visited many places for searching knowledge.

Earliest travelers to the Indian Soil:
Perhaps the earliest travelers from distant lands to the Indian soil were the trading Persians. Evidences of Carvan of Persians visiting India lies engraved in the inscriptions dating to the Persian king Daurius. During the rule of the Guptas, there was free access to the ports along the Western Coast, seaborne commerece with Europe through Egypt was yet another reason for travel in and around the country. The greatest traveler remembered from the distant past is Hieun-tsang. A devout Chinese Buddhist, he made the perilous journey to India around AD. 633. His main mission was to collect and translate ancient Buddhist scriptures. Some other notable traveller were Alexander the Great, Marco Polo, Benjamin of Tudela, Ibn Batutah, Francisco Friar, Alfonso D’ Albuquerque and Mark Twain.

• Benjamin: The first traveler to reach the orient was probably Benjamin of Tudela, a Jewish scholar, who left Sargossa in the year A.D. 1160. He wrote a detailed account of his 13 year long journey through Europe, Persia and India.
• Ibnbatutah: He was born at Tangier in A.D. 1304. In the year A.D. 1325, he left the home and passing through various countries in Africa and West Asia, crossed the Sindhu in A.D. 1333. Out of 17000 miles, he covered more than 14000 miles in the course of his travels through India, the Maldives and Ceylon.
• Marco Polo: the fearless traveler spent almost 25 years in Asia during the later part of the 13th century. Young Marco Polo left Venice in the year 1271 with his father and Uncle. The three together traveled through Persia and Afghanistan to the ‘roof of the world’, the then unknown Pamir Plateau. After crossing the wind-swept Gobi desert, they reached Kublai Khan’s palace and remained in China for over 20 years. On his way back home, he stopped in Sumatra, Java, India and Ceylon. Marco Polo’s description of a place Zipangu (Japan) , in his memoirs, set the course for Columbus on his historic journey 1492.
• Other travelers: Vasco da Gama traveld from sea routes of Western Europe to India in 1498 and Ferdinand Magellan shipped around the world. Francisco Friar, John of Monte Corvino also visited India. The first great sailor to the westward circumnavigation of the world was Francis Drake who knighted by Queen Elizabeth I in the year 1581. From 1768 to 1779 Captain James Cook made three long voyages to the Pacific.
Grand Tour Period:
The Renaissance period can be called the period of Grand tour. Italy became the cultural and Economic power of Europe. In 1552 Edward – IV of England Passed an act for holiday. Grand Tour came to an end due to French Revolution of 1789 and attack of Napoleon Bonaparte.
Emergency of Spas and Seaside Resort:
The center of medicinal bathing and water cure is known as spas. It derived from ‘espa’ a Germany word which means fountain. In 18th Century, curative aspect of sea bathing came to be recognized and sea side resorts began. It marked the preventive factors of several maladies.
The Industrial Revolution Period:
In this period the concept of modern tourism developed due to the many factors like
Changing of the economic and social system,
Establishment of big factories and rise of new cities
Huge working class people, Prosperity of city life
Unhealthy conditions of lower class people
Good transportation and communication system.

Rail Transport:
19TH Century is a great landmark, due to the advent of the railway system. In 1830, the first train started its running from Liverpool to Manchester. From 1841 the systematic and organized railway travel was started. The encouragement among the people for travel started, tracks were laid down in France, England, and Switzerland which caused the immediate expansion of travel industries.
Sea Transport:
The introduction of sea transport began another phase for the development of tour and travel industry. The emergency of sea route was marked the travel between the intercontinental levels. Thus inter-continental travel began.
Road Transport:
Road transport laid the vital role in between rail and ship. Number of roads and highways were constructed after Second World War. These are
1. Trans – West – African Highways
2. Trans – African Highways
3. Pan American Highway
4. Asian Highway.
Air Transport:
Post world war period was marked the development of air transport system. It was also marked that, the growth of international tourism due to the advent airways. In 1952, the “Package Holiday” system began. Thus global tourism was developed.

GROWTH OF WORLD TOURISM:

Introduction: International cooperation in any field of activity in the modern world has assumed a great importance. The cooperation brings together worldwide government to join together for negotiations in activities mutually beneficial to all of them. The world bodies or the international organizations provide a platform where ideas are exchanged and topics of mutual interest discussed and solutions are arrived at. In the field of tourism, organizations emerged with the objective of developing and promoting the tourism industry. So there are number of international organizations existing today.

Early History: The history of cooperative endeavor in tourism can be traced back to the year 1908. Three countries – France, Spain, and Portugal felt the need of pooling their resources in the interest of promoting tourism and founded the “France, Spain, and Portuguese Federation of Tourist Association”. This might be considered as the first international tourist organization. The international collaboration in the field of tourism was supported by many other countries after First World War. In 1924, the International Union of Official Organizations for Tourist Propaganda (IUOOTP) was set up. First congress was held at Hague of Holland, in 1925. It was attended by delegates from Fourteen European countries. In 1947, the International Union of Official Travel Organizations was founded (IUOTO). In 1950, India joined with IUOTO. Then various organizations were emerged for the development of tourism in world level like WTO, PATA, IATA, ICAO, UFTAA, IHA etc.

World Tourism Organization:
WTO: The World Tourism Organizations (WTO), an intergovernmental technical body dealing with all aspects of tourism began its legal existence on January 2, 1975. The head quarters of the organization was set up at Madrid (Spain) in 1976. In June 1977, the Second General Assembly of WTO approved an agreement with the U N for Cooperation and Relationship.

Aims:

1. Promotion and development of tourism
2. Particular attention to the interests of the developing countries in the field of tourism.
3. To play the central role in the field of tourism for effective collaboration with appropriate organs of U.N.O. and its specialized agencies.

Members: Three types of members
1. Full Time Members
2. Associate Members
3. Affiliated Members

Function of W.T.O: It is mainly divided into three divisions. Followings are the main divisions of W.T.O
1. General Assembly
2. Executive Council
3. Secretariat.

General Assembly: It consist of six subsidiary organs like
1. WTO commission for Africa(CAF)
2. WTO Commission for the America.(CAM)
3. WTO Commission for the East Asia & Pacific (CAP)
4. WTO Commission for the South Asia(CSA)
5. WTO Commission for the Middle East (CME)
6. WTO Commission for the Europe(CEU)

Executive Council: Consists of full members. It means there should be one member in between every five full time members. It meets at least twice a year.

Activities:
1. Maintains of statistical data, regulation etc.
2. Simplifying frontier formalities and removing the barriers of tourists.
3. Organizing and convening international conference, seminars, roundtable for tourism.
4. Preparation of Draft and international agreement on tourism.
5. Collection and updating the information.



Pacific Asia Travel Association (PATA):
Founded in 1951 along with 44 members to stimulate interest of the Pacific region.
Founder: LORRIN THURSTON, a news paper publisher of Honolulu. First conference was held in January 1952, Headquarter is at SAN FRANCISCO. Offices were opened at Manila, Philippines etc in 1976.
Activities: To assist small and upcoming destinations to develop their infrastructure.
To provide up to date information of tourism.
To organize annual conferences for the promotion of tourism.
Development of Services Plan to tourist.
To do research activities.

Publications: PATA publishes number of activities for the promotion of tourism
7. Pacific Travel News
8. Pacific Area destination Handbook
9. Hotel Directory
10. Travel Guide.

Membership:
It can be divided into nine categories
A. Active Government
B. Associate Government
C. Active Carrier
D. Associate Carrier
E. Active Industry
F. Allied
G. Affiliated Allied
H. Associated
I. Sustaining

PATA Secretariat: Office is located at San Francisco of USA
Role----Making of policies, plans, administration, finance, membership and planning for annual conference.
Divisions of PATA: mainly three divisions,
• Asia Division- office is located at Singapore and it looks Japan, Korea, China, India, Pakistan, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, etc.
• Pacific Division- office is located at New South Wales and it looks Australia, New Zealand etc.
• American/European Division-office is located at San Francisco and it looks North and South America and Western Europe.

PATA Chapter:
• Area Chapter
• Promotional Chapter
It was introduced in 1960 among the travel organizations to continue education program.

International Air Transport Association (IATA):

Founded in-1945, at Havana. During the Second World War it was found that the rapid growth of airlines network in International level. People needed a worldwide common regulation of air traffic system. So an international convention was called by President Roosevelt of USA at Chicago. It constituted two permanent bodies. These are

1. International Air Transport Association (IATA)
2. International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO)

Objectives----To encourage the development of reliable, regular and economical air transport for the people of world.
To provide the means for collaboration among the air transport enterprises.
To cooperate with the International Civil Aviation Organization
Global planning of International time table
Training of travel agents
To regulate and develop security measures.
Simplification and speed movement of people and goods from any points of world air network to other by combination of routes at a single ticket and currency.
To examine and solve the problems raised by tourists or passengers
Standardization of the reservation system

Traffic Conference Areas:
IATA has been divided into three Traffic Conference Area for smooth administration.
Traffic Conference Area-1, it consists of North, South, and Central America, Hawaii Island, Greenland etc.
Traffic Conference Area-2, it consists of All European countries including the part of Union Soviet Socialist Republic (USSR)
Traffic Conference Area-3, it consists of Asia, part of Russia, Australia etc.

International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO):

In 1945, ICAO was founded at Chicago,
Head Quarters--- Montréal, Canada,
Regional Offices Mexico city, Lima, Paris, Bangkok etc.
Objectives Development of Airways, airports etc.
Try for the reduction of unnecessary formalities
Aircraft design and operation etc.
Organs of ICAO Principal Organs is Assembly. It meets every three year.
Subsidiary Bodies---- Three subsidiary bodies
1. Air Navigation Commission
2. Air Transport Committee
3. Legal Committee


Universal Federation of Travel Agents Association (UFTAA):
Founded in March, 1966 at Rome.
Aims----------To act as a negotiating body with various branches of travel organization
To offer the technical and professional assistance to all its members
Headquarters---Brussels, Belgium etc. India, Pakistan, Indonesia, Sri Lanka etc are the members of UFTAA.

International Hotel Association (IHA):
Founded in March 1946 at London.
AIMS------To federate National Hotel Association of All Countries
To study the Problems of Hotel Industries
To inform all updates of hotel industry etc.

Structure:
The Association has a General Congress which meets at least every two years, an Executive Committee consisting of 30 members and a council having 180 members. Association is headed by the President and assisted by the group of officers.
Membership:
IHA has a membership spanning 140 countries; comprising hotels and restaurants .There are more than 80 National Hotel Association members of IHA.

Happy Learning

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